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Lower Limb and Thorax Short Answer Key 2007

Part I/II: True/False and Short Answer Guide Clarifications

  • 4i. circled/uncircled - tendocalcaneus
  • 7f. circled/uncircled - aortic artch
Part III - Answers for 20 pts. - Lecture Exam #1
  1. Bronchopulmonary Segment:
    • Structurally independent unit/Surgical importance
    • Tertiary bronchus
    • Pulmonary artery
    • Lung tissue
  2. Chordae Tendinae:
    • Fibrous collagenous structures attached to ventricular of cusps of AV valves
    • Extend from papillary muscles
    • Chordae tendinae of each papillary muscle are attached to each cusp of AV valve
    • Resists pressure from ventricular contraction
  3. Pericardiacophrenic Artery:
    • Branch of internal thoracic artery
    • Courses in endothoracic fascia/between pericardium and mediastinal parietal pleura
    • Supplies blood to pericardium
    • Supplies blood to diaphragm
    • Anterior to the hilum of the lung
  4. Lesser Sciatic Foramen:
    • Formed by sciatic notch/sacrospinous ligament/sacrotuberous ligament
    • Contains Obturator internus tendon
    • Internal Pudendal Artery/Vein
    • Pudendal Nerve/Nerve to obturator internus
  5. Retinaculum:
    • Deep fascia
    • Holds tendons in place across joints/prevents bowstringing
    • Associated with tendon sheaths
    • Tendons pass through synovial fluid

Original Guide

  1. Bronchopulmonary Segment
    • Structurally independent functional unit
    • Surrounded by visceral pleura
    • Contains a tertiary bronchi, pulmonary artery, and lung tissue
    • Allows for surgical removal of segment without damage to surrounding lung tissue
    • Centrally placed lobular bronchi with lung tissue and artery
    • Pulmonary veins are located between segments
  2. Chordae tendinae
    • fibrous collagenous structures that support the cusps of the AV valves
    • extend from papillary muscles to the cusps of the AV valves
    • prevent the AV valve cusps from being everted into the atrium by the
    • pressure developed in the contracting ventricle
    • arise from 3 sets of papillary muscles (anterior, posterior, septal)
    • attaches each papillary muscle to all cusps (inferior margin)
  3. Pericardiacophrenic artery
    • branch of the internal thoracic artery
    • courses in endothoracic fascia (with phrenic nerve and pericardiacophrenic vein) between fibrous layers of pericardium and mediastinal parietal pleura
    • supplies blood to pericardium (serous and fibrous layers) as well as the diaphragm
    • pass anterior to hila of the lungs
  4. Lesser sciatic foramen
    • formed by the lesser sciatic notch, sacrospinous ligament, and sacrotuberous ligament
    • structures coursing through: tendon of obturator internus muscle
    • pudendal nerve and internal pudendal artery and vein
    • nerve to obturator internus
    • communication between ischiorectal fossa and gluteal region
  5. Retinaculum
    • thickened deep fascia
    • holds tendons close to joints across which they pass preventing bowstringing of the tendons allowing for increased leverage
    • associated with tendon sheaths
    • Extensor retinaculum:
      • superior: attached laterally to anterior portion of lateral malleolus, medially to anterior portion of medial malleolus
      • inferior: Y shaped, attached to upper surface of calcaneus (sulcus calcaneai), distal band attaches to planter aponeurosis, proximal band attaches to medial malleolus
    • Flexor retinaculum:
      • medial malleolus to medial calcaneus and plantar aponeurosis
    • Peroneal retinaculum:
      • Superior: lateral malleolus to lateral calcaneus and deep transverse fascia of the lower leg
      • Inferior: continuous anteriorally with inferior extensor retinaculum; Posterior to lateral calcaneus; Some fibers fuse with peroneal trochlea of calcaneus forming a septum between the tendons of peroneus longus and brevis





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Topic revision: r1 - 12 Sep 2007, UnknownUser
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