Laboratory Identifications and Relationships (non-exhaustive)

Note: This guide is not exhaustive. These relationships are incomplete. The intent is to highlight key relationships to be observed during dissection.

Anterior and Medial Thigh

  1. Great Saphenous V. - medial posterior knee
  2. Superficial epigastric v. - intermediate to sup. pudental v. and sup. circumflex iliac v., roof of femoral triangle
  3. Superficial (external) pudendal v. - medial course toward "pudendal" region
  4. Superficial circumflex iliac v. - relation to anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
  5. Lateral femoral cutaneous n. - ASIS, sartorious, inguinal lig (entrapment)
  6. Iliotibial tract - insertion of tensor fascia lata
  7. Anterior femoral cutaneous n. - piercing fascia lata along sartorious
  8. Superior cornu saphenous hiatus - superficial epigastric v.
  9. Inferior cornu saphenous hiatus - inferior and posterior relation to great saphenous v.
  10. Superficial inguinal lymph nodes vertical group - great saphenous v.
  11. Femoral v. - relations within femoral sheath
  12. Lacunar ligament - medial to femoral ring, ant/med to pectineal lig., post/med to inguinal lig.
  13. Femoral n. - deep to iliacus fascia, muscular lacuna
  14. Femoral a. - femoral triangle superficial to femoral v.
  15. Medial femoral circumflex a. - floor of femoral triangle, pectineus and iliopsoas
  16. Lateral femoral circumflex a. transverse branch - lateral border femoral triangle, deep to rectus femoris, vasti?
  17. Lateral femoral circumflex a. ascending branch - vasti?
  18. Lateral femoral circumflex a. descending branch - vasti?
  19. Profunda femoris a. - floor of femoral triangle, pectineus and adductor longus, posterior to adductor longus, anterior?
  20. First and second perforating aa. - adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor brevis, femur (lat or med)?
  21. Anterior division obturator n. - anterior to adductor brevis, posterior?
  22. Posterior division obturator n. - posterior to adductor brevis, anterior?
  23. Nerve to vastus medialis - adductor canal?, adductor hiatus?
  24. Saphenous n. - adductor canal, adductor hiatus?
  25. Descending genicular a. - adductor canal, adductor hiatus?
  26. Long tendon adductor magnus - adductor tubercle, adductor hiatus (med or lat)?

Gluteal Region

  1. Ischial spine - relations to: greater sciatic foramen, lesser sciatic foramen, superior gemellus, obturator internus, sacrospinous ligament, pudendal n., internal pudendal a. v.
  2. Ischial tuberosity - relations to: hamstrings, adductor magnus, quadratus femoris, sacrotuberous lig., sciatic n., greater trochanter
  3. Sacrospinous lig. - deep (anteromedial) to pudendal n.
  4. Pudendal n. - leaving pelvis through greater sciatic foramen to enter gluteal region, leaving gluteal region through lesser sciatic foramen to enter ischiorectal fossa.
  5. Superior gluteal a. - superior to piriformis, branches to: gluteus maximus (accompanied by nerve?), gluteus medius, gluteus minimus
  6. Superior gluteal n. - superior to piriformis, between (ant. to and post. to?) gluteus medius and gluteus minimus, branch to tensor fascia lata
  7. Inferior gluteal n. - inferior to piriformis, accompanied by inferior gluteal a.
  8. Gluteus maximus - insertion at gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract
  9. Superior gemellus - origin from ischial spine
  10. Intertrochanteric crest - insertions of piriformis, gemelli, obturator internus, quadratus femoris (5 short lateral rotators)
  11. Gluteus medius - insertion onto superior border of greater trochanter
  12. Gluteus minimus - insertion onto superior border of greater trochanter
  13. Sciatic n. - inferior to piriformis, posterior to gemelli, obturator internus tendon, and quadratus femoris, between greater trochanter and ischial tuberosity
  14. Medial circumflex femoral a. - branches superior, inferior and deep (ant) to quadratus femoris, branches superior to adductor magnus
  15. First perforating a. - adductor magnus
  16. Obturator externus - tendon at insertion into the trochanteric fossa
  17. Obturator n. - piercing obturator externus (note: this is tough)

Posterior Thigh and Popliteal Fossa

  1. Short head biceps - receiving lateral branch of sciatic n. (peroneal portion)
  2. Long head biceps - receiving medial branch from sciatic n. (tibial portion), crossing posterior to axis of knee (flexor of knee)
  3. Perforating a. - piercing adductor magnus, medial to femur
  4. Ischial tuberosity - origin of hamstrings, posterior to horizontal axis of hip joint (extensors of hip)
  5. Semimembranosus - deep (ant.) to semitendinosus, crossing posterior to knee axis (flexor of knee), posterior axis of hip (extensor of hip)
  6. semitendinosus - crossing posterior to knee axis (flexor of knee), posterior to axis of hip (extensor of hip), inserting at pes anserinus
  7. gracilis - crossing posterior to knee axis (flexor of knee), medial to axis of hip (adductor of hip), inserting at pes anserinus
  8. sartorious - crossing posterior axis of knee (flexor of knee), anterolateral to axis of hip (abductor, flexor, and lateral rotator of hip), inserting at pes anserinus
  9. pes anserinus - anteromedial upper tibia, "inverted tripod", pierced by saphenous n.
  10. Adductor magnus - receiving branch from medial aspect (tibial) of sciatic n., poster part from ischial tuberosity (does not cross knee joint)
  11. Popliteal a. - entering popliteal region through the adductor hiatus, anterior (deep) to popliteal v.
  12. Popliteal v. - superficial (post.) to popliteal a.
  13. Sciatic n. - superficial (post.) to popliteal v.
  14. Lesser (short) saphenous v. - entering popliteal v.
  15. Superior medial genicular a. - superior to medial femoral epicondyle (and adductor tubercle) at origin of medial head gastrocnemius
  16. Superior lateral genicular a. - superior to lateral femoral epicondyle at tendinous origin of lateral head gastrocnemius
  17. Inferior medial genicular a. - immediately inferior to axis of knee, deep (ant.) to medial head head gastrocnemius
  18. Inferior lateral genicular a. - immediately inferior to axis of knee, deep to lateral head gastrocnemius
  19. Middle genicular a. - piercing posterior capsule of knee joint near the axis
  20. Common peroneal n. - branching laterally from sciatic toward head of the fibular
  21. Tibial n. - coursing inferior deep to the heads of origin of the soleus
  22. Sural aa. - branching from popliteal and supplying heads of the gastrocnemius
  23. Plantaris tendon - posterior (superficial) to the tibial n.
  24. Lateral sural cutaneous n. - branching from common peroneal n.
  25. Medial sural cutaneous n. - branching from tibial n.
  26. Communicating branch of peroneal n. - converging onto medial sural cutaneous n. to form sural nerve
  27. Sural n. - in "fat path" between heads of gastrocnemius

Leg, Foot, Hip, Knee, and Ankle

  1. Inferior lateral genicular a. - immediately posterior to arcuate lig. and popliteus m.
  2. Inferior medial genicular a. - piercing popliteus fascia, coursing as much as an inch lower than the inferior lateral genicular a.
  3. Common peroneal n. - between lateral head gastrocnemius and peroneus longus, superficial to head and neck of fibula
  4. Plantaris m. and tendon - posterior to tibial n.
  5. Anterior tibial a. - deep to the fibular origin of soleus
  6. Posterior tibial a. - coursing anterior (deep) to the superior free edge of soleus
  7. Superficial peroneal n. - between peroneus longus and brevis
  8. Biceps tendon - inserting on head of fibula
  9. Anterior crual septa - attaching to fibula, anterior border of lateral compartment, lateral border of anterior compartment
  10. Posterior crual septa - attaching to fibula, posterior border of lateral compartment, anterior border (in part) of posterior compartment
  11. Peroneal a. - branches piercing the posterior crual septum
  12. Posterior tibial a. - medial to tibial n.
  13. Anterior tibial a. - medial to deep peroneal nerve (contrast the path of each structure into the anterior compartment)
  14. Deep peroneal n. - piercing anterior crural septum to enter anterior compartmetn
  15. Anterior tibial a. - passing superior to superior free edge of interosseus membrane
  16. Anterior tibial recurrent a. - deep to tibialis anterior
  17. Peroneus tertius - inserting on 5th metatarsal (where?)
  18. Anterior medial malleolar a. - superior to superior limb of inferior extensor retinaculum
  19. First dorsal metatarsal a. - medial to deep peroneal n., dorsal to first dorsal interosseus
  20. Inferior peroneal retinaculum - inferior to lateral malleolus, at level of the "stem" on inferior extensor retinaculum
  21. Superior peroneal retinaculum - attachment to lateral malleolus
  22. Medial tarsal a. - passing deep to tendon insertion of tibialis anterior
  23. Inferior extensor retinaculum - superior limb superior to medial malleolus, inferior limb inferior to medial malleolus
  24. Sustentaculum tali - forming groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus, deep to tibial n. and posterior tibial a.v.
  25. Medial malleolus - forming groove for tibialis posterior
  26. perforating branch of peroneal a. - entering anterior compartment of leg by piercing interosseous membrane (might become dorsalis pedis)
  27. Communicating branch of peroneal a. - distal aspect of posterior compartment between peroneal and posterior tibial aa.
  28. Posterior tibial a. - descending in posterior compartment between flexor hallucis longus and tibialis posterior
  29. Peroneal a. - terminating as the lateral malleolar and calcaneal branches
  30. Medial calcaneal a. - branching from posterior tibial or lateral plantar aa.
  31. Lateral plantar a. - terminal branch of posterior tibial a., branching within flexor retinaculum (or inferior)
  32. Medial plantar a. - terminal branch of posterior tibial a., branching within flexor retinaculum (or inferior)
  33. Peroneus longus tendon - crossing lateral and inferior to peroneus brevis tendon
  34. Interosseous membrane - posterior border anterior compartment, anterior border posterior compartment
  35. Lateral Malleolus - "pully" for peroneus longus and brevis
  36. Transverse intermuscular septum - interveening between soleus and muscles of deep posterior compartment
  37. Extensor hood - lateral bands attaching to base of distal phalanx and middle band attaching to base of middle phalanx
  38. Tendon extensor hallucis brevis - crossing superficial to dorsalis pedis a.
  39. Dorsalis pedis a. - leaving the dorsum of foot between the heads of the first dorsal interosseus, branching of arcuate a. near base of metatarsals
  40. Arcuate a. - running transversely from medial to lateral dorsal to base of metatarsals, deep to long and short tendons
  41. dorsal venous arch - superficial to long and short tendons, becomes great saphenous v. on medial side and short saphenous v. on lateral side
  42. Lateral dorsal nerve of foot - representation of sural nerve extending onto dorsum of foot, superficial to tendons
  43. Deep peroneal n. - traveling with first dorsal metatarsal a. immediately dorsal to first dorsal interosseous
  44. Lateral tarsal a. - crossing transversely deep to the origins of extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis
  45. Superficial transverse metatarsal ligament - transverse fibers distal aspect of plantar aponeurosis, superficial (inferior) to common digital aa.
  46. Medial calcaneal nerve - branching from lateral plantar nerve (or tibial n.) near flexor retinaculum
  47. Medial plantar nerve - medial to quadratus plantae, extending anteriorly between abductor hallucis and quadratus plantae
  48. Tendon of flexor digitorum longus - medial to quadratus plantae, corssing medial and inferior to tendon of flexor hallucis longus
  49. Lateral plantar n. - crossing middle compartment deep to flexor digitorum brevis and superficial to quadratus plantae
  50. Deep branch lateral plantar a. - passing deep to lumbricals, passing deep to oblique head of adductor hallucis, crossing plantar side of base of metatarsals
  51. Medial plantar n. - branches to abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, first lumbrical, and flexor hallucis brevis
  52. Plantar metatarsal aa. - branching from plantar arch, extending distally on plantar side side of interosseus mm
  53. Plantar proper digital aa. - terminal branching of plantar metatarsal aa.
  54. Long plantar ligament - creating floor of interosseous tunnel for the tendon of peroneus longus, extending to base of metatarsals
  55. Short plantar ligament (plantar calcaneocubiodal lig.) - medial to long plantar lig., extending to, but not crossing, groove of cubiod bone
  56. Spring ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular lig.) - medial and posterior to short plantar lig., transverse fiber orientation, attachment to sustentaculum tali
  57. Deltoid lig. - extending from medial malleolus to calcaneous, talus, and navicular bone
  58. Collateral ligs. - capsular thickenings on sides of metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
  59. Tendons of lumbricals - crossing plantar surface of adductor hallucis transverse head, crossing inferior to deep transverse metatarsal lig. (thus, flex MP), inserting on lateral side of extensor hood distal to interosseous insertions (thus, extend IPs)
  60. Tendon flexor digitorum longus - "splitting" tendon flexor digitorum brevis, inserting on base of distal phalanx
  61. Tendon peroneus longus - observed through "window" removed from long plantar lig.
  62. Tendon of iliopsoas - supporting anterior hip joint, inserting on lesser trochanter
  63. Iliofemoral lig. - arising from anterior inferior iliac spine deep to straight head rectus femoris, long stem extending to lesser trochanter, short stem attaching along intertrochanteric line
  64. Pubofemoral lig. - transverse fibers extending from pubic pectin to intertrochanteric line
  65. Joint capsule - attachements along intertrochanteric line
  66. Acetabular labrum - complete circle around acetabular rim, connection to bone disrupted at transverse acetabular notch, attached to transverse acetabular ligament
  67. Transverse acetabular lig. - "bridge" across acetabular notch, forms osseofibrous foramen transmitting a. ligament of head of femur
  68. Infrapatellar synovial fold - "tent" covering anterior surface of anterior cruciate lig.
  69. Coronary ligaments - securing menisci to tibial plataeu
  70. Tendon popliteus - deep to fibular collateral lig.
  71. Transverse genicular lig. - anterior connection between menisci
  72. Oblique popliteal lig. - expansion of tendonous insertion semimembranosus, extending obliquely from medial to lateral, posterior capsular specialization
  73. Arcuate lig. - posterior capsular specializatoin, "arcs" over the popliteus muscle as this muscle becomes extracapsular
  74. Tibial collateral lig. - attachment to medial meniscus, extending from medial femoral condyle to tibial condyle
  75. Fibular collateral lig. - extends from lateral femoral condyle to head of the fibula
  76. Tendon of popliteus - crossing lateral knee deep to fibular collateral ligment, superficial to lateral meniscus
  77. Inferior lateral genicular a. - deep to fibular collateral lig., superficial to tendon of popliteus
  78. Inferior medial genicular a. - deep to tibial collateral lig.
  79. Superior medial genicular a. - deep to long tendon of adductor magnus, superior to adductor tubercle
  80. Superior lateral genicular a. - piercing the most inferior extent of the lateral intermuscular septum
  81. Anterior cruciate lig. - extending from medial posterior aspect of later femoral condyle to anterior tibial intercondylar area
  82. Posterior curciate lig. - extending from lateral posterior aspect of medial femoral condyle to posterior tibial intercondylar area


Thoracic Wall and Pleural Cavities

  1. Suspensory ligaments of the breast (Cooper's, retinaculum cutis) - spanning the depth of the breast from skin to deep fascia
  2. Lacterferous ducts - converging at the nipple
  3. Intercostobrachial cutaneous nerve - left lateral branch of T2 (thought to be involved in referred pain from cardiac sources)
  4. Anterior cutaneous nerve - at level of xiphisternal junction
  5. External intercostal membrane - immediately related to sternum
  6. Internal thoracic artery and vein - on superficial surface of transversus thoracis m. and deep surface of internal intercostal m.
  7. Musculocutaneous artery - terminal branch internal thoracic near level of xiphoid process
  8. Costotransverse joint - cupped shaped articular surface on transverse process for upper ribs, planar shaped for lower ribs
  9. Intercostal nerve - within the neurovascular plane (between innermost intercostal and internal intercostal
  10. suprapleural membrane - thickened endothoracic fascia marking the most superior boundary of the pleural cavity


Lungs, Anterior and Middle Mediastinum

  1. Superior and inferior sternopericardial ligaments - reflections of costal parietal pleura that become mediastinal parietal pleura; pericardiocentesis
  2. Lingula - Left lung only; thought to represent a middle lobe of the left lung, cardiac notch
  3. Eparterial bronchus - Right lung only; aka right superior lobar bronchus; becomes superior to pulmonary artery; gives rise to three bronchopulmonary segments
  4. Hilum of the lung - reflection of mediastinal parietal pleura that continues as visceral pleura, provides pathway for neurovascular supply to lung proper; pulmonary ligament
  5. Groove for the esophagus - right lung
  6. Groove for the thoracic aorta - left lung
  7. Groove for the brachiocephalic artery - right lung
  8. Groove for the subclavian artery - left lung
  9. Phrenic nerve - within endothoracic fascia; between fibrous pericardium and fibrous layer mediastinal parietal pleura; anterior to hilum of the lung
  10. Pericardiacophrenic vessels - anterior to hilum of the lung
  11. Vagus nerve - posterior to hilum of the lung; ramifying to form esophageal plexus
  12. abc


  1. abc

Superior and Posterior Mediastinum

  1. Arch of the aorta - brachialcephalic a., left common carotid a., left subclavial a., ligamentum arteriosum
  2. Left Phrenic nerve - cross aortic anterior to cardiac nn., anterior to hilum of lung, within endothoracic fascia between fibrous pericardium and fibrous pleura
  3. Left vagus nerve - crossing aortic arch inferior to cardiac nn, posterior to hilum of lung
  4. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve - on inferior edge of aortic arch, posterior to ligamentum arteriosum, ascending in tracheoesophageal groove
  5. Right vagus nerve - crossing trachea deep to arch of the azygos, posterior to hilum of lung, contributing to esophageal plexus
  6. Superficial cardiac plexus - lateral surface of aortic arch near ligamentum arteriosum
  7. Deep cardiac plexus - anterior surface of bifurcation of trachea
  8. Right pulmonary artery - crossing primary bronchi immediately inferior to bifurcation of trachea
  9. Arch of the azygos - lateral to trachea, esophagus, right vagus nerve, level of first rib, superior to contents of hilum, inferior phrenic n., medial to lung
  10. Esophageal plexus - receiving contributions from right and left vagus nn.
  11. Right posterior intercostal artery - crossing anterior aspect of vertebral body, deep to azygos v., deep to thoracic duct
  12. Azygos vein - on anterior aspect of vertebral body, anterior to right posterior intercostal aa., posterior to thoracic duct
  13. Stellate ganglion - sympathetic trunk ganglion at level of 1st rib
  14. Sympathetic trunk ganglion - ant: splanchnic nn., post: rami communicantes, superior: sympathetic trunk, inferior: sympathetic trunk, medial: vertebral body
  15. Intercostal nerve - entering thorax through intervertebral foramen, enter intercostal space superficial to subcostal mm
  16. Esophagus - anterior to aorta at level of tracheal bifurcation, posterior to tracheal bifurcation, deep to arch of the azygos
  17. Sphanchnic nerves - coursing anterior medial and inferior from sympathetic trunk ganglia, 5-9 contributing to greater splanchnic
  18. Thoracic duct - anterior to vertebral body, right posterior intercostal a., hemiazygos v., left of azygos vein
  19. Rami communicantes - coursing anterior from intercostal n., posterior from sympathetic trunk, lateral posterior surface of vertebral body




-- LorenEvey - 23 Aug 2009

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Topic revision: r1 - 06 Aug 2014, UnknownUser
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